Abstract: Rapid technology development and widespread use of visual sensors have led to a number of new problems related to protecting intellectual property rights, handling patent infringements, authenticating acquisition source, and identifying content manipulations. This paper introduces non-intrusive component forensics as a new methodology for forensic analysis of visual sensing information, aiming at identifying the algorithms and parameters employed inside various processing modules of a digital device by only using the device output data without breaking the device apart. We propose techniques to estimate the algorithms and parameters employed by important camera components such as color filter array and color interpolation modules. The estimated interpolation coefficients provide useful features to construct an efficient camera identifier to determine the brand and model from which an image was captured. The results obtained from such component analysis are also useful to examine the similarities between the technologies employed by different camera models to identify potential infringement/licensing and to facilitate studies on technology evolution.

  author       = {Ashwin Swaminathan and Min Wu and K. J. Ray Liu},
  url          = {http://www.ece.umd.edu/~ashwins/pdf/ComponentForensicsTIFS07.pdf},
  journal      = {IEEE Trans. on Information Forensics and Security},
  number       = {1},
  volume       = {2},
  year         = {2007},
  title        = {Non-intrusive component forensics of visual sensors using output images},
  pages        = {91--106},