Abstract: In this report, we present a method for estimation of primary quantization matrix from a double compressed JPEG image. We first identify characteristic features that occur in DCT histograms of individual coefficients due to double compression. Then, we present 3 different approaches that estimate the original quantization matrix from double compressed images. Finally, most successful of them - Neural Network classifier is discussed and its performance and reliability is evaluated in a series of experiments on various databases of double compressed images. It is also explained in this paper, how double compression detection techniques and primary quantization matrix estimators can be used in steganalysis of JPEG files and in digital forensic analysis for detection of digital forgeries.

  author       = {Jan Luk\'{a}\v{s} and Jessica Fridrich},
  url          = {http://www.ws.binghamton.edu/fridrich/Research/Doublecompression.pdf},
  journal      = {Proc. of DFRWS 2003},
  year         = {2003},
  title        = {Estimation of primary quantization matrix in double compressed {JPEG} images},
  pages        = {5--8},