Abstract: When creating a digital composite of two people, it is difficult to exactly match the lighting conditions under which each individual was originally photographed. In many situations, the light source in a scene gives rise to a specular highlight on the eyes. We show how the direction to a light source can be estimated from this highlight. Inconsistencies in lighting across an image are then used to reveal traces of digital tampering.

  url          = {http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/farid/publications/ih07.pdf},
  booktitle    = {9th International Workshop on Information Hiding},
  author       = {Micah K. Johnson and Hany Farid},
  year         = {2007},
  title        = {Exposing digital forgeries through specular highlights on the eye},
  address      = {Saint Malo, France},