Abstract: The availability of sophisticated digital imaging technology has given rise to digital forgeries that are increasing in sophistication and frequency. We describe a technique for exposing such fakes by detecting inconsistencies in lighting. We show how to approximate complex lighting environments with a low-dimensional model and, further, how to estimate the model's parameters from a single image. Inconsistencies in the lighting model are then used as evidence of tampering.

  url          = {http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/farid/publications/tifs07a.pdf},
  journal      = {IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security},
  author       = {Micah K. Johnson and Hany Farid},
  number       = {2},
  volume       = {3},
  year         = {2007},
  title        = {Exposing digital forgeries in complex lighting environments},
  pages        = {450-461},