Abstract: Most digital cameras export images in the JPEG file format. This lossy compression scheme employs a quantization table that controls the amount of compression achieved. Different cameras typically employ different tables. A comparison of an image's quantization scheme to a database of known cameras affords a simple technique for confirming or denying an image's source. Similarly, comparison to a database of photo-editing software can be used in a forensic setting to determine if an image was edited after its original recording.

  url          = {http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/farid/publications/tr06a.pdf},
  author       = {Hany Farid},
  number       = {TR2006-583},
  year         = {2006},
  title        = {Digital image ballistics from {JPEG} quantization},
  institution  = {Department of Computer Science, Dartmouth College},