Abstract: In this paper, we provide a unified framework for identifying the source digital camera from its images and for revealing digitally altered images using photo-response non-uniformity noise (PRNU), which is a unique stochastic fingerprint of imaging sensors. The PRNU is obtained using a Maximum Likelihood estimator derived from a simplified model of the sensor output. Both digital forensics tasks are then achieved by detecting the presence of sensor PRNU in specific regions of the image under investigation. The detection is formulated as a hypothesis testing problem. The statistical distribution of the optimal test statistics is obtained using a predictor of the test statistics on small image blocks. The predictor enables more accurate and meaningful estimation of probabilities of false rejection of a correct camera and missed detection of a tampered region. We also include a benchmark implementation of this framework and detailed experimental validation. The robustness of the proposed forensic methods is tested on common image processing, such as JPEG compression, gamma correction, resizing, and denoising.

  author       = {Mo Chen and Jessica Fridrich and Miroslav Goljan and Jan Luk\'{a}\v{s}},
  url          = {http://www.ws.binghamton.edu/fridrich/Research/DoubleColumnFinal.pdf},
  journal      = {Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on},
  number       = {1},
  volume       = {3},
  year         = {2008},
  title        = {Determining image origin and integrity using sensor noise},
  pages        = {74--90},