Abstract: Digital fingerprinting is a technology for tracing the distribution of multimedia content and protecting them from unauthorized redistribution. Unique identification information isembedded into each distributed copy of multimedia signal and serves as a digital fingerprint. Collusion attack is a cost-effective attack against digital fingerprinting, where colluders combine several copies with the same content but different fingerprints to remove or attenuate the original fingerprints. In this paper, we investigate the average collusion attack and several basic nonlinear collusions on independent Gaussian fingerprints, and study their effectiveness and the impact on the perceptual quality. With unbounded Gaussian fingerprints, perceivable distortion may exist in the fingerprinted copies as well as the copies after the collusion attacks. In order to remove this perceptual distortion, we introduce bounded Gaussian-like fingerprints and study their performance under collusion attacks. We also study several commonly used detection statistics and analyze their performance under collusion attacks. We further propose a preprocessing technique of the extracted fingerprints specifically for collusion scenarios to improve the detection performance.

  author       = {H. Vicky Zhao and Min Wu and Z. Jane Wang and K. J. Ray Liu},
  url          = {http://www.ece.umd.edu/~minwu/public_paper/Jnl/0505FPnonlinear_IEEEfinal_TIP.pdf},
  journal      = {IEEE Transactions on Image Processing},
  number       = {5},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2005},
  title        = {Forensic analysis of nonlinear collusion attacks for multimedia fingerprinting},
  pages        = {646--661},