Abstract: This article reports on the electric network frequency criterion as a means of assessing the integrity of digital audio/video evidence and forensic IT and telecommunication analysis. A brief description is given to different ENF types and phenomena that determine ENF variations. In most situations, to reach a non-authenticity opinion, the visual inspection of spectrograms and comparison with an ENF database are enough. A more detailed investigation, in the time domain, requires short time windows measurements and analyses. The stability of the ENF over geographical distances has been established by comparison of synchronized recordings made at different locations on the same network. Real cases are presented, in which the ENF criterion was used to investigate audio and video files created with secret surveillance systems, a digitized audio/video recording and a TV broadcasted reportage. By applying the ENF Criterion in forensic audio/video analysis, one can determine whether and where a digital recording has been edited, establish whether it was made at the time claimed, and identify the time and date of the registering operation.

  author       = {Catalin Grigoras},
  url          = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T6W-4KJ74XN-6&_user=1495569&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1051460331&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C000053194&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1495569&md5=021ab90ac69b58957bc67cc09db43b44},
  journal      = {Forensic Science International},
  number       = {2--3},
  volume       = {167},
  year         = {2007},
  title        = {Applications of {ENF} criterion in forensic audio, video, computer and telecommunication analysis},
  pages        = {136--145},