Abstract: From the court we were asked whether it is possible to determine if an image has been made with a specific digital camera. This question has to be answered in child pornography cases, where evidence is needed that a certain picture has been made with a specific camera. We have looked into different methods of examining the cameras to determine if a specific image has been made with a camera: defects in CCDs, file formats that are used, noise introduced by the pixel arrays and watermarking in images used by the camera manufacturer.

  author       = {Zeno J. M H. Geradts and Jurrien Bijhold and Martijn Kieft and Kenji Kurosawa and Kenro Kuroki and Naoki Saitoh},
  url          = {http://geradts.com/html/Documents/cameras.htm},
  booktitle    = {Proceedings of SPIE: Enabling Technologies for Law Enforcement and Security},
  volume       = {4232},
  editor       = {Simon K. Bramble and Edward M. Carapezza and Lenny I. Rudin},
  year         = {2001},
  title        = {Methods for identification of images acquired with digital cameras},
  pages        = {505-512},