Abstract: This tutorial explains how photo-response non-uniformity (PRNU) of imaging sensors can be used for a variety of important digital forensic tasks, such as device identification, device linking, recovery of processing history, and detection of digital forgeries. The PRNU is an intrinsic property of all digital imaging sensors due to slight variations among individual pixels in their ability to convert photons to electrons. Consequently, every sensor casts a weak noise-like pattern onto every image it takes. This pattern, which plays the role of a sensor fingerprint, is essentially an unintentional stochastic spread-spectrum watermark that survives processing, such as lossy compression or filtering. This tutorial explains how this fingerprint can be estimated from images taken by the camera and later detected in a given image to establish image origin and integrity. Various forensic tasks are formulated as a two-channel hypothesis testing problem approached using the generalized likelihood ratio test. The performance of the introduced forensic methods is briefly illustrated on examples to give the reader a sense of the performance.

  author       = {Jessica Fridrich},
  url          = {http://www.ws.binghamton.edu/fridrich/Research/full_paper_02.pdf},
  journal      = {IEEE Signal Processing Magazine},
  number       = {2},
  volume       = {26},
  year         = {2009},
  title        = {Digital image forensics using sensor noise},
  pages        = {26--37},