Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel accurate detection framework of demosaicing regularity from different source images. The proposed framework first reversely classifies the demosaiced samples into several categories and then estimates the underlying demosaicing formulas for each category based on partial second-order derivative correlation models, which detect both the intrachannel and the cross-channel demosaicing correlation. An expectation-maximization reverse classification scheme is used to iteratively resolve the ambiguous demosaicing axes in order to best reveal the implicit grouping adopted by the underlying demosaicing algorithm. Comparison results based on syntactic images show that our proposed formulation significantly improves the accuracy of the regenerated demosaiced samples from the sensor samples for a large number of diversified demosaicing algorithms. By running sequential forward feature selection, our reduced feature sets used in conjunction with the probabilistic support vector machine classifier achieve superior performance in identifying 16 demosaicing algorithms in the presence of common camera postdemosaicing processing. When applied to real applications, including camera model and RAW-tool identification, our selected features achieve nearly perfect classification performances based on large sets of cropped image blocks.

  author       = {Hong Cao and Alex C. Kot},
  url          = {http://www3.ntu.edu.sg/home/eackot/softcopy%20paper/accurate%20detection-ieee%20tifs%20dec09.pdf},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {899--910},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2009},
  title        = {Accurate detection of demosaicing regularity for digital image forensics},
  journal      = {IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security},